The book of 1 Samuel concerns the exploits of the righteous leader Samuel and the two men he anoints as king, Saul and David. Saul is challenged by David’s popularity and is eventually killed in a battle with the Philistines. David is a valiant warrior who must flee to the Philistines despite proving his loyalty to Saul.

Summary 1 Samuel 1: After many years of barrenness, Hannah’s prayers are answered. She gives birth to Samuel and gives him to Eli the priest so that he may serve Yahweh all the days of his life.

Summary 1 Samuel 2: Hannah thanks Yahweh by reciting a thanksgiving hymn. Eli’s sons corrupt the priesthood by stealing meat and sleeping with women who visit the temple. An angel appears to Eli and tells him his family will be punished accordingly.

Summary 1 Samuel 3: Yahweh appears to Samuel and portends the fall of Eli’s house. Although he is apprehensive, Samuel relates the bad news to Eli who accepts the prophecy as the will of Yahweh.

Summary 1 Samuel 4: After losing to the Philistines, the Israelites bring the ark with them into battle. They are routed and the Philistines capture the ark. Eli and his daughter-in-law die when they hear the disturbing news.

Summary 1 Samuel 5: The Philistines, who have the ark in their possession, are afflicted with hemorrhoids. The Philistine people beg their leaders to return the ark to the Israelites.

Summary 1 Samuel 6: The Philistines return the ark to the people of Beth Shemesh. After being punished by Yahweh for looking inside the ark, the people of Beth Shemesh ask the inhabitants of Kiriath Jearim to remove the ark from their midst.

Summary 1 Samuel 7: Samuel exhorts the Israelites to abandon their idols. They listen, and Yahweh grants them military success against the Philistines. Samuel travels throughout the land and serves as a pious leader in Israel.

Summary 1 Samuel 8: Samuel’s sons turn out to be corrupt leaders. The people tell Samuel they want a king and he is unable to convince them otherwise. Yahweh tells Samuel to heed the inimical request.

Summary 1 Samuel 9: Saul searches for his father’s missing donkeys and happens to meet Samuel. Samuel prepares a feast and tells Saul that he is destined for greatness.

Summary 1 Samuel 10: Samuel anoints Saul as king. He predicts many events that subsequently take place. When Saul returns home, Samuel assembles the people at Mizpah and publicly declares him as the first king of Israel.

Summary 1 Samuel 11: The Ammonites threaten to torture the people of Jabesh Gilead. Saul musters 330,000 troops and defeats the enemy with ease. The people celebrate Saul’s kingship at Gilgal.

Summary 1 Samuel 12: Samuel delivers a harsh speech in his old age. He criticizes the people for requesting a king, brings a miraculous rainstorm to scare them, and warns them to follow the will of Yahweh.

Summary 1 Samuel 13: In response to Saul’s offensive, the Philistines prepare to attack Israel. Saul assembles an army and offers a sacrifice before Samuel arrives. Samuel tells him he is doomed to lose the monarchy.

Summary 1 Samuel 14: Jonathan leaves the camp and kills twenty Philistine soldiers. The Philistines panic and are defeated by the Israelites. Saul, who forbade eating on the day of battle, almost kills his son for eating honey.

Summary 1 Samuel 15: Samuel instructs Saul to slaughter the Amalekites. Saul kills the Amalekite men, women, and children but spares the king and a few choice animals. Samuel informs Saul that he has been rejected by Yahweh. Samuel then kills the king of Amalek.

Summary 1 Samuel 16: Yahweh sends Samuel on a mission to anoint David as the future king. Saul is plagued by an evil spirit that is alleviated by David’s music.

Summary 1 Samuel 17: A mighty Philistine soldier named Goliath ridicules the Israelites. David travels to the battlefield and kills him with his sling. The Israelites attack and force the Philistines to retreat.

Summary 1 Samuel 18: Saul becomes jealous of David’s military victories. After failing to kill David with his own spear, Saul relegates David to the army’s front line. David succeeds in battle, marries Saul’s daughter Michal, and becomes more popular than the king.

Summary 1 Samuel 19: Saul fails to kill David. Michal helps David flee to Ramah where he stays with Samuel.

Summary 1 Samuel 20: David angers Saul when he skips the meal for the new moon. Jonathan betrays his father by helping David flee for his life.

Summary 1 Samuel 21: David convinces the priest Ahimelech to provide him with bread and a sword. David flees to the Philistine city of Achish where he feigns madness.

Summary 1 Samuel 22: David escapes from the Philistines and safekeeps his parents with the king of Moab. With the exception of one son named Abiathar, Saul has Ahimelech’s priestly family killed.

Summary 1 Samuel 23: The Philistines attack Keilah and are driven away by David. Saul chases David into the mountains but fails to capture him.

Summary 1 Samuel 24: Saul inadvertently enters David’s hiding place. Instead of killing him, David cuts off a corner of Saul’s garment as proof of his loyalty. Saul acknowledges David’s innocence and accepts his role as future king.

Summary 1 Samuel 25: David asks Nabal for provisions. Nabal spurns the request and is almost killed by David. Nabal’s wife Abigail appeases David by secretly giving him food and drink. Nabal dies and David takes Abigail as his wife.

Summary 1 Samuel 26: Saul chases after David. David sneaks into the Saul’s chambers, steals his personal items, and secretly returns to his own camp. Saul is contrite when he learns that David had the opportunity to kill him but chose not to.

Summary 1 Samuel 27: David flees to Philistia. He plunders the neighboring cities but manages to trick the Philistines by telling them he has raided Judah itself.

Summary 1 Samuel 28: The Philistines prepare to attack the Israelite army. Saul travels to En Dor, conjures up Samuel’s ghost, and is told he is doomed to fail. Although Saul is distraught, he and his men manage to travel back to the camp.

Summary 1 Samuel 29: The Philistines, with David in their ranks, prepare to attack the Israelites. David’s loyalty is questioned and he is sent home.

Summary 1 Samuel 30: David and his men return to Ziklag to find their homes burned, their possessions stolen, and their families kidnapped. The men pursue the guilty Amalekites and exact their revenge.

Summary 1 Samuel 31: Saul’s army is routed by the Philistines. His sons are killed and he commits suicide. The Philistines desecrate Saul’s body and the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead eventually bury his remains.

The book of Judges recounts the battles between the Israelites and enemies such as the Canaanites, Amorites, Ammonites, Arameans, Midianites, and Philistines. It also recounts a number of battles and events that take place amongst the Israelites themselves.

Summary Judges 1: Judges begins with the conquest of Canaan. Judah conquers most of its territory but the other tribes are not as successful. While the other tribes are able to subjugate the Canaanites and Amorites to forced labor, they are unable to dispossess them from the land.

Summary Judges 2: An angel reprimands the people for forsaking God. Joshua’s death is recounted, and the people’s sinfulness is described.

Summary Judges 3: Yahweh sends Othniel to save the Israelites from the king of Aram. Yahweh then sends Ehud to kill the king of Moab. Finally, Shamgar kills 600 Philistines with an ox goad.

Summary Judges 4: Yahweh sends Deborah the prophetess and Barak the warrior to destroy the Canaanite army. The glory, however, goes to Jael the Kenite for killing the Canaanite general with a tent peg.

Summary Judges 5: Deborah and Barak sing about their victory over the Canaanites. They praise Yahweh, the Israelite warriors, and Jael, but scold the tribes that failed to join the fight.

Summary Judges 6: The Midianites oppress the Israelites. An angel appears to Gideon and tells him to destroy his father’s idols. Gideon destroys the idols and is given a sign that he will succeed at war.

Summary Judges 7: In order to emphasize His own role in the victory, Yahweh tells Gideon to diminish the troop number from 32,000 to 300. Gideon is given a sign of success, and he routs the Midianites.

Summary Judges 8: Gideon requests bread from two towns but the townspeople send him away. He kills the kings of Midian and takes revenge on the people who spurned his request by destroying their two towns. Gideon rejects an offer to be king and the Israelites worship other gods after he dies.

Summary Judges 9: Abimelech takes control of Shechem and kills his seventy brothers. When a rebellion led by Gaal precipitates, Abimelech kills the entire city. He also attacks Thebaz, but a woman kills him by dropping a millstone on his head.

Summary Judges 10: Two chiefs, Tola and Jair, rule over Israel one after the other. After their deaths the Israelites worship other gods. Yahweh is incensed and gives them over to the Amorites and Ammonites.

Summary Judges 11: Jephthah becomes the leader of the Gileadites. When the Ammonites cause trouble, he vows to sacrifice the first person he sees when he returns from war. After lecturing and defeating the Ammonites, his daughter is the first person to greet him. Jephthah offers his daughter as a sacrifice.

Summary Judges 12: Jephthah leads the Gileadites to victory over the Ephraimites. Three other chiefs named Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon rule Israel after Jephthah dies.

Summary Judges 13: An angel appears to Manoah and his wife and tells them they will have a Nazirite child. The child is born and he is named Samson.

Summary Judges 14: Samson is engaged to marry a Philistine girl. At his celebratory feast, he poses a riddle to thirty Philistine men. They cajole Samson’s wife into giving them the answer and Samson responds by killing the thirty men.

Summary Judges 15: Samson burns the Philistine fields when is denied access to his wife. After being handed over to the Philistines, Samson kills 1,000 of them with a jawbone.

Summary Judges 16: Samson falls in love with a Philistine named Delilah. She persuades him to reveal the source of his strength and then double-crosses him. He is tortured in a Philistine arena but manages to destroy the edifice. In doing so, he kills himself and the enemy in attendance.

Summary Judges 17: Micah builds a house of worship and hires a young Levite to serve as his priest.

Summary Judges 18: The Danites, who cannot find a place to live, migrate northward. They abduct Micah’s priest and seize his religious objects. They massacre the people of Laish, rename the town Dan, and set up a new religious center for themselves.

Summary Judges 19: A Levite settles in Gibeah for the night after picking up his concubine from his father-in-law’s house. The men of Gibeah attempt to sodomize him but end up raping the concubine until her death. As a response, the Levite dismembers his wife’s corpse and sends her body parts throughout the land of Israel.

Summary Judges 20: The Israelites wage war against Benjamin for the actions of Gibeah. After three days of intense battle, the Israelites nearly wipe out the entire tribe of Benjamin. All of the women and children are put to the sword and only six-hundred men survive.

Summary Judges 21: The Israelites are disturbed by the possible annihilation of Benjamin. However, they previously swore  to keep their daughters from the Benjaminites. In order to save Benjamin, they kill the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead and give the girls to the Benjaminites. The Benjaminites also kidnap girls from the annual festival and take them as their wives.

The book of Joshua has 24 chapters. Chapters 1-12 recount the conquest of the land, chapters 13-21 recount the partition of the land, chapter 22 describes a near-civil war, and chapters 23-24 describe Joshua’s final days.

Summary Joshua 1: Yahweh orders Joshua to cross the Jordan River in order to conquer the land. Joshua informs the people and reminds the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Half Manasseh about their commitment to cross over with the rest of the nation.

Summary Joshua 2: Joshua sends scouts to Jericho and Rahab saves them from the king. The scouts vow to save Rahab and her family when they return to conquer the land.

Summary Joshua 3: Yahweh promises to exalt Joshua in the eyes of the people. The Jordan River is halted and the people cross on dry land.

Summary Joshua 4: Twelve stones from the Jordan are set up at Gilgal as a remembrance for the miraculous crossing of the Jordan. Joshua also sets up twelve stones within the Jordan itself.

Summary Joshua 5: The Israelites are circumcised at the hill of foreskins, which is renamed Gilgal. The people celebrate Passover and Joshua is approached by the general of Yahweh’s army.

Summary Joshua 6: Joshua carries out Yahweh’s plan and destroys the city of Jericho.

Summary Joshua 7: The Israelites are defeated at Ai because the herem (proscription) of Jericho is violated. Achan admits his guilt and he and his entire family are stoned to death.

Summary Joshua 8: The Israelites ambush Ai and kill its 12,000 inhabitants. Joshua recites Moses’ teaching of blessings and curses upon Mount Ebal.

Summary Joshua 9: The Gibeonites dress in costume and trick the Israelites into a peace treaty. The Israelites consequently force the Gibeonites to do degrading labor.

Summary Joshua 10: Joshua protects Gibeon from the Amorites, stops the sun and moon, and conquers the land.

Summary Joshua 11: Joshua defeats the local kings who rally against him and conquers the land.

Summary Joshua 12: The kingdoms that Moses conquered east of the Jordan and that Joshua conquered west of the Jordan are listed.

Summary Joshua 13: Yahweh tells Joshua, who has grown old, to apportion the land west of the Jordan to the Israelite tribes. The land that Moses apportioned east of the Jordan is described.

Summary Joshua 14: Joshua grants Caleb the city of Hebron, just as Moses promised.

Summary Joshua 15: The boundaries and cities of Judah’s territory are enumerated. Caleb conquers his land and gives his daughter Achsah in marriage to Othniel, the man who conquers Kiriath-Sepher.

Summary Joshua 16: Ephraim is allotted its portion but is unable to dispossess the Canaanites from Gezer.

Summary Joshua 17: The sons and daughters of Manasseh are given their portion but cannot dispossess the Canaanites. When they ask for more land, Joshua tells them to clear the forests and conquer the Canaanites in the valleys.

Summary Joshua 18: Joshua sends scouts to explore and divide the land into seven portions for the remaining seven tribes. Benjamin is allotted its portion of land.

Summary Joshua 19: Joshua allots territories of land to Simeon, Zebulun, Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, and Dan. Joshua is given the town (Timnath-serah) he requests in the territory of Ephraim.

Summary Joshua 20: In accordance with Yahweh’s command, the people designate six cities of refuge for those who kill by mistake.

Summary Joshua 21: The Levites are given forty-eight cities from the territories of the twelve tribes. The conquest and settlement of the land comes to an end.

Summary Joshua 22: Joshua sends the Transjordanian tribes home and they make an altar along the way. This enrages the Cisjordanian tribes. War is averted when the Transjordanians explain that their “altar” is actually a memorial that is not meant for sacrifice.

Summary Joshua 23: Joshua gathers the people in his old age, praises Yahweh for conquering the land, and warns that intermarriage and idolatry will cause calamity

Summary Joshua 24: Joshua recounts the history of Israel, convinces the people to commit to Yahweh, and sets up a stone as a witness. Joshua dies and is buried in Ephraim.

woman desert aloneHebrew-English Text

I. Summary

Abram impregnates Hagar, the slave of his barren wife Sarai. Sarai beats Hagar, who flees, and an angel informs Hagar that her son Ishmael will multiply greatly. Hagar returns to Abram and gives birth to Ishmael.

II. Photo

Hagar runs away: “Sarai dealt harshly with her, and she ran away from her.” (v.6)

III. Select Verses

1-6: Now Sarai, Abram’s wife, bore him no children. She had an Egyptian slave-girl whose name was Hagar, and Sarai said to Abram, “You see that the LORD has prevented me from bearing children; go in to my slave-girl; it may be that I shall obtain children by her.” And Abram listened to the voice of Sarai. So, after Abram had lived ten years in the land of Canaan, Sarai, Abram’s wife, took Hagar the Egyptian, her slave-girl, and gave her to her husband Abram as a wife. He went in to Hagar, and she conceived; and when she saw that she had conceived, she looked with contempt on her mistress. Then Sarai said to Abram, “May the wrong done to me be on you! I gave my slave-girl to your embrace, and when she saw that she had conceived, she looked on me with contempt. May the LORD judge between you and me!” But Abram said to Sarai, “Your slave-girl is in your power; do to her as you please.” Then Sarai dealt harshly with her, and she ran away from her.

7-12: The angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, the spring on the way to Shur. And he said, “Hagar, slave-girl of Sarai, where have you come from and where are you going?” She said, “I am running away from my mistress Sarai.” The angel of the LORD said to her, “Return to your mistress, and submit to her.” The angel of the LORD also said to her, “I will so greatly multiply your offspring that they cannot be counted for multitude.” And the angel of the LORD said to her, “Now you have conceived and shall bear a son; you shall call him Ishmael, for the LORD has given heed to your affliction. He shall be a wild ass of a man, with his hand against everyone, and everyone’s hand against him; and he shall live at odds with all his kin.”

IV. Outline

1-6. Abram impregnates Hagar

    1a. Sarai was barren

    1b-2. Sarai tells Abram to have children with Hagar, Sarai's slave

    3-4a. Abram impregnates Hagar 

    4b-5. Sarai hates Hagar and blames Abram

    6. Sarai beats Hagar, who flees

7-14. Hagar and the angel

    7. An angel finds Hagar at a well

    8-9. Hagar is to return to Sarai

    10. Hagar's offspring will multiply greatly

    11. The child shall be named Ishmael (god has listened)

    12. Ishmael will be a stubborn, wild, nomad

    13-14. Hagar names the angel and the site of the vision 

15-16. Hagar gives birth to Ishmael when Abram was 86 years old

V. Comment

No comment today. Stay tuned.

VI. Works Used

(see “Commentaries” page)

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Telescope-006Hebrew-English Text

I. Summary

Abram is promised offspring as well as the land. As a sign of the covenant, Yahweh sends fire between the animal parts laid out by Abram.

II. Photo

Yahweh shows Abram the night sky: “He brought him outside and said, ‘Look toward heaven and count the stars, if you are able to count them.’ Then he said to him, ‘So shall your descendants be.'” (v. 5)

III. Select Verses

3-5: And Abram said, “You have given me no offspring, and so a slave born in my house is to be my heir.” But the word of the LORD came to him, “This man shall not be your heir; no one but your very own issue shall be your heir.” He brought him outside and said, “Look toward heaven and count the stars, if you are able to count them.” Then he said to him, “So shall your descendants be.”

13-14, 16:  Then the LORD said to Abram, “Know this for certain, that your offspring shall be aliens in a land that is not theirs, and shall be slaves there, and they shall be oppressed for four hundred years; but I will bring judgment on the nation that they serve, and afterward they shall come out with great possessions. As for yourself, you shall go to your ancestors in peace; you shall be buried in a good old age. And they shall come back here in the fourth generation; for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet complete.”

17: When the sun had gone down and it was dark, a smoking fire pot and a flaming torch passed between these pieces.

18: On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your descendants I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates,

IV. Outline

1-6. Promise of offspring

    1a. Yahweh reveals himself to Abram in a vision

    1b. Yahweh is Abram's shield

    2-3. Abram's complaint: the lack of an heir

    4-5. Yahweh promises Abram offspring as numerous as the stars

    6. Abraham believes Yahweh

7-21. Yahweh's sign that Abram will inherit the land

    7. Yahweh promises the land

    8. Abram asks for a sign

    9. Yahweh asks for a cow, a goat, a ram, a tutledove, and a pigeon

    10. Abram cuts the animals in half, save for the birds

    11. Abram drives away the birds of prey

    12. Abram falls asleep

    13-14. Abram's children will be foreign slaves for 400 years before leaving with wealth

    15. Abram will die peacefully in old age

    16. His descendants will return after four generations

    17. Flames passed between the animal parts at night

    18-21. Summary statement: Abram will inherit the land from Egypt to the Euphrates


V. Comment

No comment today. Stay tuned.

VI. Works Used

(see “Commentaries” page)

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bread-wineHebrew-English Text

I. Summary

Lot is captured by the four kings of Mesopotamia, who defeat the five kings of the Jordan Valley. Abram saves Lot by defeating the four kings in the north past Damascus. Abram is blessed by the king of Salem and returns the plunder to the king of Sodom.

II. Photo

Abram is blessed: “And King Melchizedek of Salem brought out bread and wine; he was a priest of God Most High. He blessed him, saying, ‘Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth.'” (vv. 18-19)

III. Select Verses

1-2: Now, when King Amraphel of Shinar, King Arioch of Ellasar, King Chedorlaomer of Elam, and King Tidal of Goiim made war on King Bera of Sodom, King Birsha of Gomorrah, King Shinab of Admah, King Shemeber of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar,

11-12: [The invaders] seized all the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah and all their provisions, and went their way. They also took Lot, the son of Abram’s brother, and his possessions, and departed; for he had settled in Sodom.

14-16: When Abram heard that his kinsman had been taken captive, he mustered his retainers, born into his household, numbering three hundred and eighteen, and went in pursuit as far as Dan. At night, he and his servants deployed against them and defeated them; and he pursued them as far as Hobah, which is north of Damascus. He brought back all the possessions; he also brought back his kinsman Lot and his possessions, and the women and the rest of the people.

18-20: And King Melchizedek of Salem brought out bread and wine; he was a priest of God Most High. He blessed him, saying, “Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth.  And blessed be God Most High, Who has delivered your foes into your hand.” And Abram gave him a tenth of everything.

22-23: But Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I swear to the LORD, God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth: I will not take so much as a thread or a sandal strap of what is yours; you shall not say, ‘It is I who made Abram rich.’

IV. Outline

1-9. A battle is waged between the 4 kings of Mesopotamia and the 5 kings of the Jordan Valley

10. The kings of Sodom and Gomorrah hide in bitumen pits

11-12. Lot and the other Sodomites are captured

13. Abram is informed

14-15. Abram and 300 men defeat the 4 kings north of Damascus

16. Lot is returned

17. The king of Sodom meets Abram

18-20a. King Melchizedek of Salem blesses Abram and Yahweh (called “the highest God”)

20b. Abram grants the king a tenth of the plunder

21-24. Abram tells the king of Sodom that he will not keep the plunder for himself, though his servants may take

V. Comment

The primary purpose of this narrative appears to be Abram’s traveling to the north. The previous chapter ended with a blessing and commandment from Yahweh to travel the land:

And Yahweh said to Abram, after Lot had parted from him, “Raise your eyes and look out from where you are, to the north and south, to the east and west, for I give all the land that you see to you and your offspring forever. I will make your offspring as the dust of the earth, so that if one can count the dust of the earth, then your offspring too can be counted. Up, walk about the land, through its length and its breadth, for I give it to you.”

Having already travelled in the southern portion of Canaan called the Negev (Gen 12:9; 13:1), it was now up to Abram to head north. In this passage Abram travels to two northern sites. The first, Dan (v. 14), appears to be the limit of later Israelite settlement as depicted in the phrase “from Dan to Beer-sheba” found throughout the Hebrew Bible (Judg 20:1; 1 Sam 3:20; 2 Sam 3:10; 17:11; 24:2, 15; 1 Kings 5:5; Amos 8:14; 1 Chr 21:2; 2 Chr 30:5). The second, Hobah north of Damascus, appears to be a grand idealized vision of the land, as reflected in territorial descriptions found in passages such as Num 13:21; 34:8; Josh 13:5; Judg 3:3; 1 Kings 8:65; 2 Kings 14:25; Ezek 47:20; 48:1; 1 Chr 13:5; 2 Chr 7:8. The two sites are probably mentioned in order to correlate to the two competing visions of the land of ancient Israel, one limited at Dan and the other limited north of Damascus.

Abram Travels

VI. Works Used

(see “Commentaries” page)

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flock-of-sheepHebrew-English Text

I. Summary

Abram and Lot become wealthy herdsmen in Canaan, which leads to strife. Lot moves to Sodom and Abram moves to Hebron, where Yahweh blesses him with land and offspring.

II. Photo

Abram and Lot gain wealth: “Lot, who went with Abram, also had flocks and herds and tents, so that the land could not support them staying together; for their possessions were so great that they could not remain together. ” (v. 6)

III. Select Verses

2-4: Now Abram was very rich in cattle, silver, and gold. And he proceeded by stages from the Negeb as far as Bethel, to the place where his tent had been formerly, between Bethel and Ai, the site of the altar that he had built there at first; and there Abram invoked the LORD by name.

10-11: Lot looked about him and saw how well watered was the whole plain of the Jordan, all of it — this was before the LORD had destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah — all the way to Zoar, like the garden of the LORD, like the land of Egypt. So Lot chose for himself the whole plain of the Jordan, and Lot journeyed eastward. Thus they parted from each other

14-17: And the LORD said to Abram, after Lot had parted from him, “Raise your eyes and look out from where you are, to the north and south, to the east and west, for I give all the land that you see to you and your offspring forever. I will make your offspring as the dust of the earth, so that if one can count the dust of the earth, then your offspring too can be counted. Up, walk about the land, through its length and its breadth, for I give it to you.”

IV. Outline

1. Abram returns to the Negeb in Canaan

2. Abram’s wealth

3-4. Abram returns to his altar near Bethel and uses the name “Yahweh”

5-7. Strife between Abram and Lot

8-9. Abram offers to separate

10-13. Lot chooses to go east to the Jordan valley near Sodom; Abram remains

14-17. Yahweh blesses Abram with land and offspring

18. Abram moves to Hebron and builds an altar

V. Comment

No comment today. Stay tuned.

VI. Works Used

(see “Commentaries” page)

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