2 Samuel 23 – “David’s Theophany; David’s Warriors”

Hebrew-English Text
I. Summary
David relates a message he once received from God. David’s warriors and their military exploits are enumerated.

II. Photo
David maligns the wicked: “The wicked shall all be raked aside like thorns; For no one will take them in his hand.” (v. 6)

III. Important Verses
2-4: The spirit of the LORD has spoken through me, His message is on my tongue; The God of Israel has spoken, The Rock of Israel said concerning me: “He who rules men justly, He who rules in awe of God Is like the light of morning at sunrise, A morning without clouds — Through sunshine and rain [Bringing] vegetation out of the earth.”
6-7: But the wicked shall all Be raked aside like thorns; For no one will take them in his hand. Whoever touches them Must arm himself with iron And the shaft of a spear; And they must be burned up on the spot.
8: These are the names of David’s warriors: Josheb-basshebeth, a Tahchemonite, the chief officer — he is Adino the Eznite; [he wielded his spear] against eight hundred and slew them on one occasion.
18: Abishai, the brother of Joab son of Zeruiah, was head of another three. He once wielded his spear against three hundred and slew them.
20-21: Benaiah son of Jehoiada, from Kabzeel, was a brave soldier who performed great deeds. He killed the two [sons] of Ariel of Moab. Once, on a snowy day, he went down into a pit and killed a lion. He also killed an Egyptian, a huge man. The Egyptian had a spear in his hand, yet [Benaiah] went down against him with a club, wrenched the spear out of the Egyptian’s hand, and killed him with his own spear.

IV. Outline
1. Introduction
2-3a. Description of theophany
3b-5. David’s state of blessing
6-7. The fate of the wicked
8-39. David’s warriors
8. Josheb killed 800 men at once
9-10. Elazar the Philistine killer
11-12. Shammah the Philistine killer
13-17. Exploits of the three soldiers
18-19. Abishai killed 300 men at once
20-23. Benaiah the lion and Egyptian killer
24-39. The “thirty soldiers”

V. Comment
No comment today. Stay tuned.

VI. Works Used
(see “Commentaries” page)
Anderson, A. A. “2 Samuel” Word Biblical Commentary, vol. 11 (Waco Texas: Wordbooks, 1989).
Campbell, Antony F. “2 Samuel” The Forms of the Old Testament Literature, vol 8 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eedrdmans, 2005).
Collins, John J. “Introduction to the Hebrew Bible,” (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2004).
Photo taken from http://wvs.topleftpixel.com/photos/thorns_on_green.jpg