Hosea 12 – “Yahweh’s Anger and Mercy”

Hebrew-English Text
I. Summary
Despite Israel’s many sins, Yahweh will restore the people in their land.

II. Photo
Israel is reproved for its international relations: “Now they make a covenant with Assyria, Now oil is carried to Egypt!” (v. 2b)

III. Important Verses
3-5: The LORD once indicted Judah, And punished Jacob for his conduct, Requited him for his deeds. In the womb he tried to supplant his brother; Grown to manhood, he strove with a divine being, He strove with an angel and prevailed — The other had to weep and implore him. At Bethel [Jacob] would meet him, There to commune with him.
8-9: A trader who uses false balances, Who loves to overreach, Ephraim thinks, “Ah, I have become rich; I have gotten power! All my gains do not amount To an offense which is real guilt.”
10: I the LORD have been your God Ever since the land of Egypt. I will let you dwell in your tents again As in the days of old,
12: As for Gilead, it is worthless; And to no purpose have they Been sacrificing oxen in Gilgal: The altars of these are also Like stone heaps upon a plowed field.
13: Then Jacob had to flee to the land of Aram; There Israel served for a wife, For a wife he had to guard [sheep].

IV. Outline
1-2. The sins of Israel
3a. God’s lawsuit
3b-5. Historical background: the name of Jacob
6-7. Exhortation to return to God
8-9. Israel’s greed and corruption
10-11. God will restore Israel
12. Israel’s worthless sacrifices at Gilgal
13. Israel’s subjugation by Aram
14. God’s work in Egypt
15. God punished Israel

V. Comment
No comment today. Stay tuned.

VI. Works Used
(see “Commentaries” page)
Collins, John J. “Introduction to the Hebrew Bible,” (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2004).
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